(a) the eligibility of these payments is determined by a loss of income that takes into account only farm incomes above 30% of average gross income or equivalent in net income (excluding payments made under the same plans or similar plans) in the previous three years or a three-year average over the previous five-year period , excluding the highest and lowest registration; Any manufacturer that fulfils this requirement can receive payments. The agricultural agreement contains a “peace clause” that governs the application of other WTO agreements to agricultural subsidies (Article 13). The provisions stipulate that Green Box`s domestic support measures must not be subject to countervailing duties or other subsidy measures under the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, nor can they be subject to measures based on non-violation, cancellation or infringement of tariff concessions under the GATT. Measures in this category include expenditures (or spending abandonments) for programs that provide services or benefits to agriculture or the rural community. They must not include direct payments to producers or processors. These programmes, which include the following list but do not limit it to the following list, must meet the general criteria set out in paragraph 1 and the following specific conditions: Article 13 of the Agriculture Agreement (AoA) provides that a peace clause (mainly) protects developing countries that use subsidies that meet the conditions of the agreement not to be challenged under other WTO agreements. Trade negotiators call Article 13 of the World Trade Organization agreement on agriculture in general a peace clause. Article 13 stipulates that a WTO member`s domestic support measures and export subsidies, which are legal under the provisions of the agriculture agreement, cannot be challenged by other WTO members for illegal acts, in accordance with the provisions of another WTO agreement. (b) the impact of reduction commitments on world agriculture trade; 2.
Members undertake to work towards the development of internationally agreed disciplines to regulate the availability of export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes, and to grant export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes only in accordance with these disciplines, after agreement on these disciplines. The WTO Agreement on Agriculture contains a “peace clause” that governs the application of other WTO agreements to agricultural subsidies, in accordance with Article 13. In a panic situation, the WTO or any other developed economy cannot penalize India for degenerating and increasing the amount of aid, mainly in the area of national or global food security. India informed the trade organization that the value of its rice production in 2018-19 was $43.67 billion, providing subsidies of $5 billion, which is above the 10% ceiling. On the other hand, the situation of major rice importing economies, such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Benin and Iraq, is difficult because many rice-exporting countries, such as Vietnam, have banned substantial exports. India can play a saviour role for these countries by supplying rice, as has already been said. (iv) The member`s budgetary expenditure on export subsidies and the quantities benefiting from these subsidies do not exceed 64% and 79% of the 1986-1990 reference period at the end of the implementation period. For members of developing countries, this percentage is 76% and 86%, respectively. (12) Non-exempt direct payments based on factors other than price are measured on the basis of budgetary expenditures.
1. The following export subsidies are subject to reduction obligations under this agreement: 1.