However, proponents of trade liberalization argue that it ultimately reduces consumer costs, improves efficiency and stimulates economic growth. Protectionism, which is the opposite of trade liberalization, is characterized by strict barriers and market regulation. The result of trade liberalization and the resulting integration between countries is called globalization. Free trade came as a result of the American War of Independence that would become the United States. After the British Parliament passed the Prohibitory Act, which blocked colonial ports, the Continental Congress responded by effectively declaring economic independence and opening American ports to foreign trade on 6 April 1776. According to historian John W. Tyler, “trade was imposed on Americans, whether they like it or not.”  Countries with advanced education systems tend to adapt rapidly to a free trade economy because they have a labour market that can adapt to changing needs and production facilities that can focus on more sought-after products. Countries with lower educational standards may have difficulty adapting to a changing economic environment. Most economists agree that NAFTA has been beneficial to the Canadian and U.S.
economies. According to a report by the Council on Foreign Relations, regional trade increased from $290 billion in 1993 to more than $1 trillion in 2016, and U.S. direct investment in Mexico has increased from $15 billion to more than $100 billion. However, economists also say that other factors may have contributed to these results, such as technological change and expanding trade with China. There is broad consensus among economists that protectionism has negative effects on economic growth and economic well-being, while free trade and the removal of trade barriers have positive effects on economic growth.  and economic stability.  However, trade liberalization can lead to significant and unevenly distributed losses and economic disorganization of workers in competing import sectors.  Abraham Lincoln`s still-young Republican Party, which self-owned the “Henry Clay Whig Tariff,” strongly opposed free trade and introduced during the Civil War a 44 per cent tariff to pay for some of the rail subsidies and the war effort, and in part to protect the preferred industries.  William McKinley (later President of the United States) explained the position of the Republican Party (which won every presidential election from 1868 to 1912, with the exception of Grover Cleveland`s two non-successive terms) such as this: Table 3 shows that there is generally no decline in the two-way merchandise trade of a non-member country because of all preferential trade agreements for which it is an “outsider”.